nauvoo legion flag
April 6, [Tuesday] 1841 – At an early hour the several companies comprising the “Nauvoo Legion,” with two volunteer companies for Iowa Territory, making sixteen companies in all, assembled at their several places of rendezvous, and were conducted in due order to the ground assigned for general review.1. Hoping to keep their fears at bay, General Smith ordered all pomp, ceremony, and sham battles replaced with small company drills, company inspections, and company parades. This caused them to be lost after the deaths of the battalion members, because the source of the cannons was not written. General Joseph Smith : Posted by Bedard Fine Arts at 10:42 AM No comments: Sunday, January 25, 2015. The city charter: laws, ordinances, and acts of the City Council of the City of Nauvoo. On December 16 the governor signed it into law, granting Smith and the city of Nauvoo broad powers. Depleted of its official status, remnants assumed roles such as guardians of the handcart and wagon companies heading west after being reorganized by Hosea Stout on September 22, 1846, as they amassed on the other side of the Mississippi River in the territory of Iowa where the citizens of Nauvoo were safe from attack by mobs and Illinois and Missouri militia, and waited for winter to end so they could migrate (citation needed). Previously, from May to June 1834 Joseph Smith led an expedition of Latter Day Saints, known as Zion's Camp from Kirtland, Ohio to Clay County, Missouri in an attempt to regain land from which the Saints had been expelled by non-Mormon settlers. Neither the Legion nor any other Mormon troops participated in the main theaters of the war, and the Legion's involvement ended in 1862, after Congress had passed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act.. They were led by a flag bearer and drummer boy followed by a contingent dressed as the Nauvoo Legion. At this Independence Day celebration, Joseph Smith spoke of patriotism and revealed, “I would ask no greater boon, than to lay down my life for my country.” After his speech, ranking officers adjourned to the temple site, where a sumptuous feast was served for their enjoyment. Twenty or so men including Mark were the Nauvoo Legion and marched with guns and ammo sacks (all pretend) at the head of the crowd. Also, the Harper's Ferry Model 1803 Rifle was issued in smaller quantities. 4 (Winter 11957): 398. An area memorialized by the somber Far West cemetery and LDS Temple. Curious guests lingered near the temple grounds hoping that artillery fire, sword exercises, and a sham battle would follow. Rigdon spoke of the significance of laying cornerstones for a House of the Lord. Revised laws of the Nauvoo Legion, from the constitution of the United States. There are however some reported incidents in diaries of Saints concerning gunfire exchange between legion members and mobs during the Nauvoo era (citation needed). The veterans who fired the salute were under the command of Captain George Tall. Four Presidents served under its banner - Martin Van Buren (1837-1841), William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841-1845), and James Polk (1845-1849). General Smith took special notice of the imposing display of spears, lances, and bayonets. After General Smith inspected the military formation, nodding his approval, he ordered the Legionnaires to advance to the temple grounds. . After this conflict, the Federal government appointed Utah's territorial governor, and the Nauvoo Legion was allowed to exist at the command of the governor. In 1870 the Utah Territorial governor, J. Wilson Shaffer forced the Legion inactive unless he ordered otherwise. But of the, Smith penned, “Highly delighted.”15, It was not until June 18, 1844, that General Smith moved from the sidelines to once again take command of a large parade and “with my staff rode in front of the Legion, marched up Main Street, and returned to our former parade ground.” This was the last parade Joseph Smith would lead. Legion survival after death of Joseph Smith. Twenty Mormon militiamen and many Native Americans died in the Walker War. Of these events, General Smith expressed, “[I have] never witnessed a more imposing spectacle than was presented on this occasion.”7, Pleased with the outcome of the first parade, Legion officers planned another for July 3, 1841. The LDS Church was incorporated and a militia, based on the Nauvoo Legion, was formed. Shop high-quality unique Nauvoo T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. The Legion tended to be very top-heavy, in that there was a disproportionate number of high-ranking officers to regular soldiers. By noon, the military entourage had reached the temple grounds in Nauvoo. Smith family tradition, however, only pushes it back as far as the Nauvoo Temple -- flying over the City of Joseph.--- Upon the revocation of the Nauvoo Charter in the winter of 1844–1845, the Nauvoo Legion was no longer recognized as state militia, and its members returned the majority of its government-issued arms. Among those who accepted was Judge Stephen A. Douglas and thousands of other visitors streamed in Nauvoo before sunup on May 7, in wagons, carriages, skiffs, riverboats, and steamers. Where an answer to prayer began ! Many of them took time to pan for gold and they were quite successful. Then came the 2nd cohort (foot troops). Sister McCleod walked by me. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1980), 4:326-27. The Illinois state legislature granted Nauvoo a liberal city charter that gave the Nauvoo Legion extraordinary independence even though it was still a component of the Illinois State Militia and under the ultimate authority of the Governor of Illinois. It was held in conjunction with the 11th anniversary of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Not long after the arrival of the Mormons in Iowa, in 1846, Mormon legionnaires volunteered to serve in the 500 man Mormon Battalion for the U.S. government military expedition to Mexican California during the Mexican–American War. In the 1849 conflicts with Native Americans in Utah County, such as the attack at Battle Creek, Utah and Battle at Fort Utah, foreshadowed the 1853–1854 Walker War between the Nauvoo Legion and Indians led by Chief Walkara ("Walker"). The legislature initially formed six counties, which covered only inhabited valleys. The Legion flag of the 1850s had thirteen stars and stripes, symbolic of the United States flag. The final use of the Legion was in Utah's Black Hawk War 1865–1872 when over 2,500 troops were dispatched against Indians led by Antonga Black Hawk. It was also under the auspices of the militia that the groups of men were organized who were instructed to burn down Salt Lake City and other parts of northern Utah should the invading army try to take up residence. He organized the first Mormon militia group known as the "Armies of Israel" to protect his people. Next came the walkers, with some dressed in 1840s clothing. None of the colorful banners garnered the surprise element as did the flag carried by the Legion Band. This flag was saluted with canon fire and than accompanied the Nauvoo legion as it made its solemn sacred march up mauholland street to the laying ceremony. The parade was led by missionaries carrying flags and wearing uniforms that represented the Nauvoo Legion. The bronze 4 pounder was found to have the crest of King Carlos 3 of Spain. On December 16 the governor signed it into law, granting Smith and the city of Nauvoo broad powers. In Utah, the Deseret Militia and Utah Territorial Militia used the official name of the Nauvoo Legion. Nauvoo newspaper was burned to the ground on Joseph Smith's orders, due to the publication of articles critical of Smith and his church's policies; Joseph Smith was ordered to the Carthage Jail under charges of Treason. All three Spanish cannons, which were brought to Salt Lake City on pallets, were mounted on carriages copied from the mountain howitzer carriage, probably in preparation for the Mormon defense against Johnston's army in 1857. In 1894, in anticipation of statehood, the non-sectarian Utah National Guard was organized as Utah's official state militia. At this point, events of the day turned from military to religious. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. Nauvoo Legion Minute Book, 1843–1844. There Legion officers with their staffs formed an inner square while the infantry and cavalry formed an outer square. . Nine days later, on June 27, he was murdered in Carthage, Illinois. Tradition says this flag was carried by the Mormon Battalion when it was in California in 1846-47, and in fact, the Bear was added to the flag while the Mormon troops were in California under the command of Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke. I decide to try I asked God to bless me. Nauvoo Legion Activities Incite Surrounding Militias The parades and other activities of the legion — which included mock battles — attracted visitors from near and far. The Legion’s main purpose, according to JS, was to protect the city from mobs and enforce city ordinances and state laws. Interesting is an alternative, historical scenario: The Indian tribes end their antagonisms and annihilate the US Army, led by President Rutherford Hayes, on 30 May 1876. Indeed, the legion became so popular that many non-Mormons joined the ranks. An Afghan National Army soldier listens while a member of the U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit gives instructions during the Basic Rifle Marksmanship Instructor Course at Kabul Military Training Center, Afghanistan, Nov. 6, 2010. Before the exercises in the dancing pavilion and at intervals during the addresses of the speakers, veterans of the Nauvoo Legion made “Old Sow,” the cannon which figures prominently in the history of the legion, “snort.” Fifteen shots were fired in honor of the nation’s flag. It may have also been used by the Mormon Battalion in the U.S. Army during the Mexican–American War (1846–1847). The soil deed started a fast pace . The 1st cohort was under the command of General Wilson Law and the 2nd under the direction of General Charles C. Rich. An exact description of the Nauvoo Legion flag (1841-1845) is not available. The 2nd Cavalry Regiment, also known as the 2nd Dragoons, is an active Stryker infantry and cavalry regiment of the United States Army.The Second Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army Europe, with its garrison at the Rose Barracks in Vilseck, Germany.It can trace its lineage back to the early part of the 19th century. Bishop J. H. Hale, 88-91, as cited in Glen M. Leonard, Nauvoo: A Place of Peace, a People of Promise (Salt Lake City; Deseret Book Company, 2002), 118. The Nauvoo Legion survived the loss of its commanding officer, Joseph Smith, when Brigham Young automatically assumed command as the new church president in August 1844, though he had never previously been active in Legion activities because Young was in England on a proselytizing mission for several years and only returned home to Nauvoo when hearing of the prophet's death to assist the family and church and citizens of Nauvoo during that sad tragedy (citation needed). It, however, was not as cooperative in imposing the colonial regime as federal authorities would have liked. Personal arms were also used. It was a miracle. I prayed to God to help me bless my steps. On July 4, 1837, "The 26-Star Flag" became the official flag of the United States. Gen. Joseph Smith, no date, original 1888. Unfortunately, such meaning did not sit well with onlookers who wanted just pomp and ceremony, not military prowess. General Smith led the military procession. It arrived in Salt Lake in 1852. Last Public Address of Lieutenant General Joseph Smith.jpg 624 × 791; 310 KB. The most common musket issued to these militiamen was the Model 1816 Musket. . After John Hafen (1856-1910), Last Public Address of Lieut. Major General Bennett, Brigadiers Law and Smith, the aides-de-camp, and invited guests followed close behind. The Nauvoo Legion was a state-authorized militia of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, United States. Nauvoo Legion Cavalry Guidon (Probable).svg 530 × 279; 21 KB. The 4 pound Spanish bronze is in the Mormon Battalion Visitor Center in San Diego, Calif. GeneralJosephSmithAddress-JohnHafen.jpg 338 × 410; 63 KB. The is a copy of it in front of the center. But none question that the Nauvoo Legion had shown its applauding visitors that May day in Nauvoo that it had grown into a veritable army, ten times the size of the 9th Regiment of Hancock County. However, on June 27, 1844, the Carthage Greys were vastly outnumbered by the mob surrounding the jail, and did not intervene in the ensuing assassination. These "valley counties" initially encompassed only a small portion of the area of Deseret and were expanded as settlement grew. On July 4, 1837, "The 26-Star Flag" became the official flag of the United States. After the revocation of the Nauvoo Charter, the members of the Nauvoo Legion continued to operate under the command of Brigham Young, leader of the movement's largest faction, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Organized under Illinois law, the Nauvoo Legion was a … In 1894, the former Utah Territorial Militia was reactivated and officially designated the Utah National Guard. At 3:00pm Legionnaires took their positions on the battlefield. Flag this item for. Although its size, 5’x4′ was pretentious if not ostentatious, it was not size that caused the applauding crowd of eight thousand to pause. CHL. It began at precisely 7:30am when artillery fire announced the arrival at the parade grounds of Brigadier Generals Wilson Law and Don Carlos Smith and their respective cohorts. NAUVOO, Ill. — LDS Church members and friends marched in a procession down the Parley Street "Trail of Hope" on Feb. 4 to commemorate the pioneer exodus from Nauvoo in 1846. “We doubt whether the like was presented in any other city in the western country,” remarked General Smith.13, Other parades in 1842-1843 echoed the confidence of the May parade. We were encouraged to wear costumes. The soldiers did not carry weapons.18 Parading without arms was a deliberate attempt to put the governor on notice that his order to surrender three cannons and 220 small arms on June 24, 1844, had crippled them in fulfilling their role as a state-sanctioned militia. Although Legionnaires sorely grieved his death, they did not end their parading. Sutter wrote a letter to the pioneer society in the 1870s where he said that his cannons, except for one Russian 4 pounder, which he donated to a museum in San Francisco, were all Spanish guns. The Nauvoo Legion was called up again in the Utah War against Federal troops entering Utah in the "Utah Expedition" from 1857–1858. Salt Lake City Utah USA Museum of Church History Nauvoo Legion Flag - Territorial Flag & United States Flag Wagon illustration, Happy Pioneer Day text. Nauvoo Legion. Tanner Trust Fund, University of Utah Library, 1980 found online at: Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=328944, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/BYUIBooks/id/3168, "Uniforms and Equipment of the Black Hawk War and the Mormon War", "Nauvoo Legion, 1840–1845 — A Unique Military Organization", "Series 2210: Territorial Militia Records, 1849–1877, 1905–[ca.1917]", List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nauvoo_Legion&oldid=1000193416, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Military units and formations established in 1840, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Protect Mormon settlers from domestic and foreign enemies, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 01:45. The main plot is not really worth to be mentioned. In the last month of his life, June 1844, Joseph Smith declared martial law in Nauvoo in response to various civil disturbances and initially deployed the Nauvoo Legion to defend the city, only to restrain the Legion from any action later. Participants ranged in age … At 9:30am cannon blasts signaled the arrival of, or as the Times and Seasons reported “gave an appropriate salute” to, Lieutenant General Joseph Smith, commander-in-chief.2 A silk flag – “The 26-Star Flag”3 was presented to General Smith by a delegation of ladies. Only the entrance of the 1st cohort (horse troops) turned their gaze. When July mustering ended, many assumed that parading was over, but not so. Hartvigsen thinks it is even possible that the flag may have even been used earlier during the Missouri persecutions. On September 27, 1844, a visitor to Nauvoo, Thomas Ford, governor of Illinois, was handed the following invitation: “Sir: The review of the Nauvoo Legion will take place this day (September 28) at twelve p.m., at which time the commander-in-chief, with his staff, is respectfully solicited to accept an escort from the Legion and be present at the review.”17 The surprised governor accepted. From Smith’s ornate sword to his favorite horse, “Jo Duncan,” Young mirrored his slain predecessor. by authority by Nauvoo Legion (Ill.) . And, faithfully, sustain us, in peace upon her land. Flag this item for.  (Antonga Black Hawk was a Ute and has no connection to the Illinois Sauk chief Black Hawk of the 1830s.) Behind them came missionaries and members carrying flags of many of the nations from which the pioneer residents of Nauvoo had come. They were not disappointed. And also legion members participated in the rescue of Joseph from the state Militia who had unlawfully arrested him after luring him to what was supposed to be a peaceful political debate and were going to hang him (citation needed). Records for the weapons issued to the other companies are missing. My marching picked up. The original Nauvoo Legion may have used the flag. The Nauvoo Legion never gathered again, and the 1887 Edmunds-Tucker Act permanently disbanded it. I was worried about walking all that way. Mark walked for 2 of his great grandfathers but also walked for Truman O. Angell who was part of the Nauvoo Legion and one of my relatives. These were thought at that time to have come from Sutter's purchase of the Russian Fort Ross and to have been either Russian or French cannons. “General Bennett next requested me to take my station in the rear of the cavalry, without my staff, during the engagement; but this was counteracted by Captain A. P. Rockwood, commander of my life guards, who kept close to my side,” wrote Smith. In 1847, Mormon leader Brigham Young reformed the Nauvoo Legion into a fully functional paramilitary force, which was organized into sub-units for each of the Utah counties as the Deseret Territorial Militia akin to their contemporaries the Army of the Republic of Texas and the Texas Rangers.. At this point Daniel H. Wells was the chief military commander of the militia. Of that occasion, General Smith penned, “An elaborated dinner was got up in the grove, of which I partook, in company with the officers of the Legion.”8. When the Mormons established their theocratic city of Nauvoo on the banks of the Mississippi in 1839, they made self-defense a priority, having encountered persecution, violence, and forcible expulsion elsewhere. When they resumed their journey home, they bought two cannons from Sutter, a four pounder and a six pounder. The Indians won is a novel about the relationships of immigrants and native Americans, written by Martin Cruz Smith, who is, as far as I know half Cherokee. NauvooLegion.jpg 470 × 364; 73 KB.  The Legion was organized into two regiments (called cohorts) of infantry and one regiment of cavalry. Distinguished guests stood between the soldiers. Early that morning the sisters presented to Joseph Smith and the Nauvoo Legion a silk flag with 27 stars representing each state in the union at that time. 6 “A Proclamation, to the Saints Scattered Abroad,” Times and Seasons, 15 Jan. 1841, 2:274; JS, Journal, 4 July and 14 Aug. 1842; JS History, vol. This rank is one step above Major General, which most contemporary militias employed as their commanding rank. Young, Brigham, and Everett L. Cooley. I could barely keep up and was falling behind. At 8:00am cannon fire announced that Major General John C. Bennett and his staff were being escorted to their posts and taking command of the 650 assembled Legionnaires. The difference in the gathering was the “spit and polished” look of the armaments they carried. A small artillery piece, an 1841 12-pound mountain howitzer was issued to the territorial militia. In 2001 three Spanish guns were identified in the LDS Church storage facility in Salt Lake City. They employed tactics of supply destruction and avoided direct fighting. After the men were released from service in 1847, they headed for home, many stopping for temporary employment at Sutter's Fort. The sham battle that followed had the trappings of a great contest. At its peak, it is said to have numbered 5,000 men, the largest such body in Illinois. Five 1803 Harpers Ferry rifles were issued to the hunters of company A. Following these flag bearers came other people walking—many families—and some participants riding in horse-drawn buggies and wagons. It was the signal eye, symbolic of the all-seeing eye of God that led onlookers to wonder aloud about the direction and purpose of the militia on parade. Flag. Federal troops dispatched in response to the 1870 Ghost Dance ensured Shaffer's order was enforced. The Legion flag of the 1850s had thirteen stars and stripes, symbolic of the United States flag. Nauvoo was officially abandoned and the last remaining citizens had vacated Nauvoo by September 17, 1846, under gunfire and cannon artillery barrage as Illinois and Missouri militia and mobs raided and burned Nauvoo to the ground (citation needed). The Mormon Battalion Flag might be one of the oldest "California" Bear flags in existence. One motive for the higher rank was to prevent Smith from being tried in a court-martial by officers of lesser rank. At its peak, the militia had, by conservative estimates, at least 2,500 troops, in comparison to the approximately 8,500 troops within the entire United States Army as of 1845. Diary of Brigham Young, 1857. A 6-pound iron cannon, probably the other battalion cannon and a smaller, but similar, 2 pound cannon were in the warehouse. He took command of the soldiers and ordered them into formation. With his permission, two units of the reorganized Nauvoo Legion were gainfully employed by the United States to protect western mail and telegraph lines from Indian attacks in what is today Utah and Wyoming, but saw no action. During the American Civil War, federal troops either were withdrawn from Utah, or in many cases left to join the rebellion, Johnston who had led the invading federal army being among the latter group. MS 3430, fd. When we got to the river, their was a flag ceremony and a prayer. Those representing the Nauvoo Legion led the parade and did the flag raising. It was there Smith was killed by a mob. The Nauvoo Legion was permanently disbanded in 1887. The name Nauvoo Legion was revived in Utah and applied to the organized militia of the state of Deseret and later of Utah Territory. It was not until 1:00pm that he dismissed the soldiers, advising them to make ready for a sham battle. With growing antagonism from surrounding settlements it came to have as its main function the defense of Nauvoo, and surrounding Latter Day Saint areas of settlement. The iron Spanish 2 and 6 pound cannons remain in storage in Salt Lake City. Voter-conscious Illinois Democrats and Whigs (including Abraham Lincoln) passed a bipartisan city-state charter for Nauvoo in 1840. Whether on parade or the battlefield, soldiers of Nauvoo gave new meaning to a well-equipped and capable fighting militia. Beschreibung Nauvoo Legion Cavalry Guidon (Probable).svg English: An illustration based on a swallowtail flag owned by the Museum of Church History and Art, now known as the Church History Museum. Supposedly, this was to elevate the social status and official standing of some members of the city. This flag was saluted with canon fire and than accompanied the Nauvoo legion as it made its solemn sacred march up mauholland street to … 6 of their group built the mill at Coloma, where gold was discovered. It is not known if it was used in Nauvoo, Illinois or in the later Nauvoo Legion Utah period. Of a company parade held on September 10, 1842, General Smith wrote, “this was the day for the training of the companies of the Nauvoo Legion; and lest I should be observed … I kept very still.”14 Without Joseph Smith reviewing the troops in his splendid military regalia, small parades attracted little attention. Today the mountain howitzer is on display in the Fort Douglas museum in Salt Lake City. Although the charter authorizing the Nauvoo Legion created an independent militia, it could be used at the disposal of the state governor or the President of the United States as well as for the mayor of Nauvoo. A carronade, a ship cannon, was purchased by the legion in Nauvoo. Posted by Julie L. Mellby on July 14, 2012 | 1 Comment. Media in category "Nauvoo Legion" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. Mormon Battalion/Nauvoo Legion "Life Guards" Flag. Ibid, 4:502; Times and Seasons, February 15, 1842. Nauvoo Legion lined up first- then flag carriers me. Voter-conscious Illinois Democrats and Whigs (including Abraham Lincoln) passed a bipartisan city-state charter for Nauvoo in 1840. NauvooLegionpaint.gif 576 × 378; 136 KB. On that date, soldiers again gathered at an early hour at the parade grounds. But there were problems. They’ll find that she doth sanction, all that we, And, especially she’ll strengthen the “Legion of. The flag was respectfully received and the occasion hailed by more cannon fire. Men portraying the Nauvoo Legion fell into line, and behind them flag bearers carried flags from the home countries of those who settled in Nauvoo. Most participants wore pioneer clothing and walked the one-mile route; others rode in horse-drawn wagons. See Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 50, no. At 10:00am Major General Bennett made a grand entrance to his brightly colored uniform with plumb atop a chapeau. Young led the Latter-day Saints to what later became the Territory of Utah. At the Legion parade, Brigham Young wore the uniform of the late Lieutenant General Joseph Smith. "Legion of Nauvoo, " Journal History of the Church, Copyright ©2021 The Joseph Smith Jr and Emma Hale Smith Historical Society, © Joseph Smith Jr and Emma Hale Smith Historical Society 2021, Short Biographies of Joseph, Emma, and their family, Emma Smith, My Story Removes False Traditions, 10 Things You Most Likely Didn't Know About Emma Smith - Called to Share, Children of Joseph Smith and Emma Smith History. This force was a militia similar to others in Illino… In their wake marched military musicians under the apt baton of Captain Edward P. Duzette. People came from all over the US to be part of the parade. Missouri persecutions came the 2nd under the command of the 1850s had thirteen stars and stripes, symbolic of imposing. Party that occasionally used it as a speakers podium the battlefield, soldiers of Nauvoo Utah era version the... Slain predecessor the difference in the gathering was the authority to create a `` body of independent ''! 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