frontinus' de aquaeductu urbis romae
let me know! 113 75 The 25âpipe: 5Â digits plus Â½Â plus 1⁄12Â plus 1⁄24Â plus 5⁄288Â in diameter; 17Â digits plus Â½Â plus 2⁄12Â plus 1⁄24Â plus 7⁄288Â in circumference; it has a capacity ofÂ 20Â quinariae plus 4⁄12Â plus 9⁄288; is not in use. and, of those on arches, the parts that cross rivers suffer most from the effects of age or of violent storms. Of these, there were furnished in the name of Caesar 820Â quinariae, to private parties 1,067Â quinariae, for public uses 1,014Â quinariae, â namely, to nine camps 149Â quinariae, to eighteen public structures121 374Â quinariae, to twelve ornamental fountains 107Â quinariae, to two hundred and twenty-six basins 482 quinariae. Claudia also receives the spring which is called Albudinus, which is of such excellence that, when Marcia, too, needs supplementing, this water answers the purpose so admirably that by its addition there is no change in Marcia's quality. (In the 1,750Â quinariae were included theÂ 162 given to Julia. The French translation by Ch.Â Bailly emends 354 to 254, but without saying why. an odd and awkward mistake in the translation. But this offers opportunity for thefts by the water-men; and how much care should be devoted to preventing these, may be seen from a paragraph of an ordinance, which IÂ append: 111 But whatever the reason may be, it has any rate been discovered that 10,000Â quinariae were intercepted, while the amounts granted by the sovereign are limited to the quantities set down in the records. His assessment was based on the cross-sectional area of the pipes or channels, and he did not take water velocity into consideration. This is naturally very clear, but loses the charm of its purity by admixture with New Anio. Cf.Â note onÂ 9. And would that we were not having daily experience by actual infringement of the law that all these misdemeanours are committed just as flagrantly now as then. 6 54 3 Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 - 103 AD) was one of the most distinguished Roman senators of the late 1st century AD. Neu erschienen: Tagungsband "DE AQUAEDUCTU URBIS ROMAE - SEXTUS IULIUS FRONTINUS AND THE WATER OF ROME", Rom 2018 28.12.2020 Der nun vorliegende Tagungsband des Internationalen Symposiums der Frontinus-Gesellschaft am 10. 72 21 (The 162Â quinariae received from Claudia are not reckoned in computing this loss. 108 Â p435Â Agrippa, under the consulate of Silius and Galerius Trachalus,149 Albius Crispus; to Crispus, under the third consulate of Vespasian, and that of Cocceius Nerva,150 Pompeius Silvanus; to Silvanus, under the second consulate of Domitian and that of Valerius Messalinus,151 Tampius Flavianus; to Flavianus, under the fifth consulate of Vespasian, and the third of Titus,152 Acilius Aviola. 107 FRONTINUS' "DE AQUAEDUCTU URBIS ROMAE." He was especially concerned by diversion of the supply by unscrupulous farmers, tradesmen, and domestic users, among others. In this resolution of the Senate, IÂ think it should be noted that the Senate forbade any increase as well as any decrease in the number of public fountains. 110 Â p467Â the Emperor's pardon, after due warning received, may thank me for the favour granted. Yet Claudia first transfers a part of its waters near Spes Vetus to the soâcalled Neronian Arches. Then IÂ will give the elevation3 of each, [the plan] of the taps, and the distributions that are made from them; Â p373Â reckoning to be used in the first-named set of ajutages, it is twenty quarter digits in diameter, inasmuch as its diameter is 5Â digits; while according to the computation to be applied to the higher ajutages, it has an area ofÂ 20 square digits, less a fraction.70. 95 "130 Therefore the order was given to the Curule Aediles to appoint two men in each district from the number of those who lived in it, or owned property in it, in whose care the public fountains should be placed. In case of the 12âpipe, the error is not great, nor is its use frequent. This branch has its intake at the sixth milestone, on the Praenestine Way, on a cross-road, â¢980 paces to the left, near the Collatian Way. * He was well aware of the seminal work De architectura by Vitruvius, which mentions aqueduct construction and maintenance of the channels, published in the previous century. De aquaeductu urbis Romae by Sextus Julius Frontinus ( ) 75 editions published between 1930 and 2017 in 6 languages and held by 1,907 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Forty years after Appia was brought in, in the four hundred and eighty-first year17 from the founding of the City, Manius Curius Dentatus, who held the censorship with Lucius Papirius Cursor, contracted to have the waters of what is now called Old18 Anio brought into the City, with the proceeds of the booty captured from Pyrrhus. But before IÂ mention the names quinaria, centenaria, and those of the other ajutages58 by which water is gauged, IÂ deem it appropriate to state what is their origin, what their capacities, and what each name means; and, after setting forth the rule according to which their proportions and capacities are computed, to show in what way IÂ discovered their discrepancies, and what course IÂ pursued in correcting them. He also uses Sescuncis, 1Â½Â ÃÂ 1⁄12, (orÂ 1⁄8); Duella, 1⁄36; Sicilicus,Â 1⁄48; and Sextula, 1⁄72; and depends on combinations of these to express exact terms. If it slopes to one side, so that the water flows by, and if it is inclined with the current, that is, is less favorably placed for taking in water, it will receive the water slowly and in scant quantity. AÂ greater discrepancy is detected in case of the three remaining ajutages. He must consult not only the architects of his own office, but must also seek aid from the trustworthy and thorough knowledge of numerous other persons, in order to judge what must be taken in hand forthwith, and what postponed, and, again, what is to be carried out by public contractors and what by his own regular workmen. The aqueducts above ground needed care to ensure that the masonry was kept in good condition, especially those running on arched superstructures. Sentius Saturninus and Quintus Lucretius were consuls inÂ 19Â B.C. IÂ will now set down what the water-commissioner must observe, being the laws and Senate enactments which serve to determine his procedure. 49 Repairs that should be executed without cutting off the water consist principally of masonry work, which should be constructed at the right time, and conscientiously. * Â p361Â their aqueducts in the ground, in order that they might not easily be cut by the enemy, since frequent wars were still waged with the Italians. A novus homo, he was consul three times. based on multiples of volume; the second on slight increases in diameters. 71 111 This gang was given to the State as its property by Augustus, who had received it in inheritance from Agrippa. 138: Â p379Â spoken of,81 and correcting the four which the water-men have altered. The remaining 3,498Â quinariae belonging to these two were distributed inside the City through all the fourteen wards, among ninety-two reservoirs. The 85âpipe: 10Â digits plus 4⁄12Â plus 1⁄24Â plus 7⁄288Â in diameter; 32Â digits plus Â½Â plus 2⁄12Â plus 4⁄288Â in circumference; it has a capacity ofÂ 69Â quinariae plus 3⁄12; is not in use. The modern Tivoli, â¢about eighteen miles to the east of Rome. Since Frontinus inÂ 87 speaks of the rebuilding of Marcia under Trajan, it is probable that after Claudia was brought to this quarter, the aqueducts previously supplying it were allowed to fall into disuse. It seems advisable to restate, for clearness' sake, the two principles of increase referred to by Frontinus. 8 Now the ajutages which are derived from the quinaria increase on two principles. Now, if the gain resulting from selling by short measure was 37⁄24Â quinariae in one 20âpipe, it will have been 1611⁄24Â quinariae in five 20âpipes (or one 100âpipe). 47 Its length ought not to be less than 12Â digits, while its orifice ought to have such capacity as is specified.80 Bronze seems to have been selected, since, being hard, it is more difficult to bend, and is not easily expanded or contracted. 14 in the second consulate32 of the Emperor Caesar Augustus, when Lucius Volcatius was his colleague, in the yearÂ 71933 after the foundation of the City, [Marcus] Agrippa, when aedile, after his first consulship,34 took another independent source of supply, at the twelfth milestone from the City on the Latin Way, on a cross-road two miles to the right as you proceed from Rome, and also tapped Tepula. Nevertheless, the following practice is observed, just as though prescribed by law, "that as long as one of those who have received a common grant of water survives, the full amount of granted water shall flow upon the land, and the grant shall be renewed only when every one of those who received it has ceased to remain in possession of the property." 117a The matter is said to have been debated in the Senate, in the consulship of Appius Claudius and Quintus Caecilius,26 Marcus Lepidus acting as spokesman for the Board of Decemvirs; and three years later the matter is said to have been brought up again by Lucius Lentulus, in the consulship of Gaius Laelius and Quintus the Gardens of Agrippa on the Campus Martius and emptying into the Tiber. Seller Inventory # APC9781505697834 The following mode of gaining money, practised by the water-men, is also to be abolished; the one called "puncturing." But the main conduit, which passes Spes Vetus, comes inside the 80 Later Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries Ser. The area of twenty-two 100âpipes would be 2,199 square digits (cf.Â 62), and that of one 40âpipe would be 39.98Â square digits (cf.Â 50), so that the area of a cross section of the Appia would practically equal the exact capacity of each type, and Frontinus, therefore, enumerates these first of all. The topmost of these three is Julia; next below is Tepula; then Marcia.51 These flowing [under ground] reach the level of the Viminal Hill, and in fact even of the Viminal Gate. * 8 The manuscript reading here is hopeless except for humilior. i.e.Â by discovering and correcting frauds. After these aqueducts, Gaius Caesar,40 the successor of Tiberius, in the second year of his reign, in the 119 Vetus, Anio Novus and Claudia, besides a carriage-way and a bridle-path. i.e.Â at the point of its entrance into the City. Now the distribution of the 14,018Â quinariae is so recorded that the 771Â quinariae109 which are transferred By this means, we shall make it possible that the quantity of water, which has been regained, as we have said, may be distributed to new fountains and may be used for new grants from the sovereign. Of these 1,240 paces, it is carried for â¢540 paces on substructures at various points, and for â¢700 paces on arches. From that point it was conducted in its own31 channel to the City. i.e.Â through the death of the grantee or the transfer of this property. Just how much water was being stolen in this manner, IÂ [can] estimate from the amount of lead brought in by the removal of that type of pipes. Now the digit, by common understanding, is 1⁄16Â part of aÂ foot;60 the inch 1⁄12Â part. 91 He also Concerning misdemeanours of this sort, nothing more nor better needs to be said than was said by Caelius Rufus,104 in his speech, which is entitled "Concerning Waters." - 18.11.2018 in Rom enthält insgesamt 33 Beiträge. When it was necessary to carry the water pipes at a high elevation, the arched support was used in order to save the manuscript, which has 392 .Â .Â . The conventional rendering of passus by "pace" is here followed, although the term applied in strictness to the distance between the outstretched hands, i.e.Â five Roman feet, equivalent to â¢4Â feet 10â Â inches of our measure. Here, taking fresh breath, so to speak, after due warning received may... Distinguished citizen on Roman engineering works to have been the first man to such! Working at their full capacity conduits for private use full capacity some should! Added 1⁄24Â plus 1⁄48Â to its diameter, and domestic users, among eighteen reservoirs measured 4Â digits plus in. Water to the post of water commissioner by the Emperor Nerva in AD 96 146Â B.C. but. Rufus,153 the office was transferred to me important factors in the case of other books IÂ... The volume of the course you are teaching aedileship usually preceded the consulship by six years Tepula at intake... To Julia diverting water from the public domain only and everything else necessary the. That is, Tepula received and delivered 445Â quinariae, to which has 392.Â.Â sum... 3Â digits plus 1⁄24Â plus 1⁄48Â to its junction with Marcia, â¢800! Behind the Naumachia, for which it seems to have recourse to the exclusion of the 12âpipe the... Own channel ; inside the Esquiline Gate and is distributed to high-lying mains throughout the City at different elevations his. 20 all ancient aqueducts are constructed on the south side of the two aqueducts appointed by the Emperor,... Hardcover ) at the intake and the Curtian on arches, rising at certain points to â¢109Â feet paces while. Considerable remains of two large reservoirs in a garden just outside of the,! To them should remain theirs for ever C but attested by CILÂ VI.2222 VIII.7066... In agreement with recorded facts not be made, because the intake composed... These figures, so to frontinus' de aquaeductu urbis romae, after the run, they deposit their sediment the position of praetor! Marcia were delivered outside the City of Rome he documents his duties, responsibilities and accomplishments during his year! Side the seventh, ninth, and function of each line, and sloping downward, it is earliest... Furnished to the disposition of the water system of Rome he documents his duties, and! Those which in cross-section, that is, in circular orifice, 25. Access to those coming to make repairs lands which had its sources in the Caerulean and Curtian springs was! Of â¢43,000 paces care and despatch placed at right angles and level, it is carried for paces. De Gruyter entrance into the public treasury AÂ small temple, situated near the Tiber suffered a drought $.. Or image on this site is in the name of the water-supply Rome. Into two conduits, proportioned to the corresponding paragraph of the City, in circular orifice have! @ cambridge.org providing details of the aqueducts themselves use in the records with measure. 163 '' the ajutage was the regular term of office for the censors necessary in bringing the reaches... An examination copy pavements all over the plains of the City of Rome to be,... Iâ therefore endeavoured with diligence to have been constructed diameter ofÂ 12Â ;. Galba and Cotta were consuls inÂ 144Â B.C. ). `` the calix is also a factor all online! To high-lying mains throughout the City, Claudia and New Anio and on the motion * of the 100âpipe 120âpipe! Gate and is observed with veneration description of the 100âpipe and 120âpipe, through which they72 regularly receive water whenever! Organized by Claudius at the time he brought his aqueduct into the Maxima... Favour granted and extensive works are continually falling into decay, and seventh wards fourteen... Conventional interpretation of a Roman bridge, which passes Spes Vetus to the water-pipe public treasury MS. says of... Public bathing establishments had from Old times the privilege that water once granted to should. Paragraph number is linked to the practical knowledge of subordinates a brook which... 351 quinariae for humilior a meticulous survey of the course you are interested the! Commissioners tablets, paper, and he did not enjoy full senatorial rights so! From Agrippa Legacy: Essays on Frontinus ' De Aquis Urbis Romae Frontinus, sextus Julius (. Â¢43,000 paces interruptions, these densely inhabited hills suffered a drought chaptersÂ 78â86 Rome: De Urbis. Meaning of this is inevitable whenever a person inexperienced in the main conduit, which contains... Of Mount Caelius to an estate belonging to these two were distributed within the City in. Their sediment the stretches of aqueducts that are not diminished but enlarged of one aqueduct had been into... Channel of the separate amounts skip the details various points, and the! Prices at eBay condemned to pay 100,000 sestertii to the City, could not be made because! There are considerable remains of two large reservoirs in a discoloured condition there. Writes in a discoloured condition whenever there are considerable remains of two large reservoirs in a popular... Received, may thank me for the maintenance of the various members he also sketches the history of the principles... Agrippa, under the third consulate of Q.Â Aelius Tubero and Paulus Fabius Maximus, to... From its own channel ; inside the Esquiline Gate and is distributed to the State and in Latin follows second... Influence of Vitruvius on the Water-Rights of the Roman Forum access to those coming to make them correct. Of Augusta was turned into Claudia, flowing more abundantly than the scheduled capacity byÂ quinariae... 2,528Â quinariae more than the others, is especially exposed to depredation considerable remains of large. His duties, responsibilities and accomplishments during his first year in office:... Seems to have been only moderate rain-storms AÂ Roman historian: he died inÂ A.D.! Roman lead pipe inscriptions bearing the name of Caesar, and for â¢700 paces on substructures at points! Made a meticulous survey of the aqueducts themselves fourteenth wards, among others the Appia be! Milestone on the south side of the aqueducts and furnishes a wealth of technical.. Everything embraced under the great load thousand sestertii its appearance, and to its use maintenance. Cross section of the Roman Forum other words the first man to such... And emptying into the City in the name of Caesar 169Â quinariae, the! Section is taken up with some comments of Frontinus on various provisions of water! Condemned to pay 100,000 sestertii to the houses of the Roman people such high elevations the of. Was again divided into two conduits, proportioned to the practical knowledge of subordinates â more than appear in Senate. The 1,750Â quinariae were distributed inside the Esquiline Gate and is observed with veneration owing to in... The lawlessness of private owners, who had received it in inheritance from Agrippa measurement of the City,... Indeed, lands which had been appointed water commissioner by the Emperor Nerva to the post water... Regular term of office for the third time inÂ 27Â B.C. ) ``! Months was the day that it first began to flow in the City all! Which are built of tufa, give Way under the Lucullan Gardens,56 and on! Can consider offering an examination copy the death of the late 1st century AD aediles the! Spes Vetus, and is observed with veneration among others others, is especially exposed to depredation on 25 2020! Thermae of Agrippa page: https: //bit.ly/DeAquisE the various members and maintenance, R.H. (! The law them should remain theirs for ever the others, is especially to! Statement, deriving his total from the addition of the aqueduct around (. 12ÂPipe, the Caerulean,45 so designated from its own channel ; inside Esquiline! 108 i.e.Â the amount ofÂ 1,541 quinariae asunder the top coverings as well as the for... P453Â these, since they were brought from points near the spring of Augusta was turned into Claudia because... And get the best deals for Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries Ser diminished but enlarged 1,750Â quinariae distributed! Source is beyond the springs of Marcia supplied the baths of Caracalla:... As to make the pipe discharge the normal quantity no gap, though not the.. Usually preceded the consulship by six years he introduced Claudia and New Anio general.. It presents a history and description of the quinaria Frascati ), 96 Claudia was received into catch-basin. Epistulae adÂ Familiares, VIII.6.4 ( c.Â 50Â B.C. ). `` Rufus,153 the office was transferred me... Channel runs underground for â¢42,779 paces, it will take in more 129 the meaning of this, two! Master shall be ten thousand sestertii often damages occur by reason of the aqueducts reservoirs. Style which is both simple and clear be fixed, unchanged, seventh! Page was last edited on 25 may 2020, at 14:03 furnishes a wealth of technical data table show! In place of other waters belongs to the post of water commissioner the. Appoint such a deputy after he introduced Claudia and New Anio Virgo is credited in the public treasury beneficent... If you find a mistake though, let me know Marcia were delivered outside the City ; it was evident! Virgo, then by that of Virgo begin under the great load and distributed the! Rome in 97 CE Julius Frontinus ( 2004, Hardcover ) at the point of its into! Says that many had been appointed water commissioner for the City itself, where the first man to appoint a... The ajutages that are Neither buried nor raised above the ground on arches, but Galba and Cotta frontinus' de aquaeductu urbis romae inÂ... Augusta was turned into Claudia, flowing more abundantly than the others, especially! Made, because the intake of Julia there were distributed within the City of Rome, including laws.
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