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 Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Throughout centuries of exile, Jerusalem remained alive in the hearts of Jews everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal. The Town of Jerusalem is on the south border of the county and is southwest of Geneva, New York. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city.. In 1995, the US Congress voted to move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem and in December 2017 President Donald Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as the Capital of Israel, a decision that was not accepted by a majority of the world's superpowers. In 2012, the Jerusalem Marathon drew 15,000 runners, including 1,500 from fifty countries outside Israel.. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com. The Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the Haram al-Sharif, as the capital of the State of Palestine, The PLO claims that West Jerusalem is also subject to permanent status negotiations. The Tombs of the Sanhedrin, an underground complex of 63 rock-cut tombs, is located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Sanhedria. In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city was increasing. Jerusalem in the Middle East was created by the Holy One of Israel as a model to build the 12 tribes of Jacob for the birth of His son (Yeshua) and also for the great dispersion of the Jewish people in carrying His name amongst nations He was scattering them.  Opinion is divided over whether the so-called Large Stone Structure and the nearby Stepped Stone Structure may be identified with King David's palace, or dates to a later period.  Nadav Na'aman argues its fortification as the centre of a kingdom dates to around the 18th century BCE. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period."  Relations between Arab Christians and Muslims and the growing Jewish population in Jerusalem deteriorated, resulting in recurring unrest. Further, Yad Vashem commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among the Nations.. The Palestinian Authority regards East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state. , After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan was able to take control of all the holy places therein.  The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim holy places, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications. In 1981 it was moved to a new building on Hebron Road near the Valley of Hinnom and the Old City.  However that may be, later Rabbinic sources also equate Salem with Jerusalem, mainly to link Melchizedek to later Temple traditions. Located in the Middle East, Jerusalem has a long history that dates back to the 4th millennium BCE. , Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues.  While many schools in the heavily Arab East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is building over a dozen new schools in the city's Arab neighborhoods. , This period, when Canaan formed part of the Egyptian empire, corresponds in biblical accounts to Joshua's invasion, but almost all scholars agree that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value for early Israel.  Shuafat is officially described in archaeological terms as being "in the vicinity of Jerusalem".  Official Israeli government policy mandates that أُورُشَلِيمَ, transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the cognate of the Hebrew and English names, be used as the Arabic language name for the city in conjunction with القُدس.  The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include Avram Hershko, David Gross, and Daniel Kahneman. The plan was intended to make East Jerusalem more Jewish and prevent it from becoming part of an urban Palestinian bloc stretching from Bethlehem to Ramallah. The southern tribes, together with the Aaronid priesthood, remained in Jerusalem, with the city becoming the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.. , Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis.  Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in 2008. In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. ), "Firuzabadi's al-Qamus al-Muhit", in The Khalili Collections, Amnon Cohen.  The first verse in the Qur'an's Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque, in reference to the location in Jerusalem. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's), Jane M. Cahill, 'Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy', in Andrew G. Vaughn, Ann E. Killebrew (eds.). , The annexation of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism.  Only the United Kingdom and Pakistan formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis. On 27 June 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments. (pp. [note 4] In 2016, the population was 882,700, of which Jews comprised 536,600 (60.8%), Muslims 319,800 (36.2%), Christians 15,800 (1.8%), and 10,300 unclassified (1.2%).. " The international regime (which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city. " The Tomb of Abba, also located north of the Old City, bears an Aramaic inscription with Paleo-Hebrew letters reading: "I, Abba, son of the priest Eleaz(ar), son of Aaron the high (priest), Abba, the oppressed and the persecuted, who was born in Jerusalem, and went into exile into Babylonia and brought (back to Jerusalem) Mattathi(ah), son of Jud(ah), and buried him in a cave which I bought by deed. (From Tel-Aviv to the West bank : 22 Km) Vertical : From the Lebanon border to Eilat (Vertical line) : 387 Km. This place has always been called a Holy Land.  Some call the site of this first settlement, the Ophel ridge. The Jerusalem Post and The Times of Israel are also headquartered in Jerusalem. Learn more about the city’s history and culture in this article. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah. Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's), Rendsberg, Gary (2008).  The final status of Jerusalem has been one of the most important areas of discord between Palestinian and Israeli negotiators for peace. Burial remains from the Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Jerusalem in Byzantine times probably consisted only of Christians. Damascus 8. Israel is located on the right side of the Mediterranean sea : Here you can see the location of Jerusalem within Israel : The dimensions of Israel : Horizontal : From Tel-aviv to the Jordan border : 73 Km.  Arab residents of Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Of the 58 synagogues in the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue. Jerusalem is served by highly developed communication infrastructures, making it a leading logistics hub for Israel. 474, pp. It is referred to in the Bible in several places (Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 11:10; 12:22–24; and 13:14), but it is most fully described in Revelation 21. Center for Contemporary Arab Studies & Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, quotes the breakdown as follows: West Jerusalem in 1948: 16,261 dunums (14%); West Jerusalem added in 1967: 23,000 dunums (20%); East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums (5%); West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem by Israel: 67,000 dunums (61%), G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren (eds. In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva. An art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished is also present. A messianic Karaite movement to gather in Jerusalem took place at the turn of the millennium, leading to a "Golden Age" of Karaite scholarship there, which was only terminated by the Crusades. , Within the past few years, there has been a steady increase in the Jewish birthrate and a steady decrease in the Arab birthrate. In July 1980, Israel passed the Jerusalem Law as Basic Law. Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored. The college gives Master of Arts in Teaching degrees.  Called the "Fortress of Zion" (metsudat Zion), it was renamed by David as the City of David, and was known by this name in antiquity. In 2007, 1,300 Palestinians lived in the previously exclusively Jewish neighborhood of Pisgat Ze'ev and constituted three percent of the population in Neve Ya'akov. While the ACRI attributes the increase to the lack of employment opportunities, infrastructure and a worsening educational system, Ir Amim blames the legal status of Palestinians in Jerusalem.  Beitar Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most well known in Israel. We'll never divide our heart. [note 3], Throughout its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, and attacked 52 times. An estimated minimum of 30,000 people had become refugees.. Since the beginning of 1950, all branches of government have resided in the city except the Ministry of Defense which is in Tel Aviv.  The al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur'an, was built on the Temple Mount under the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid to commemorate the place from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven. Answer: The New Jerusalem, which is also called the Tabernacle of God, the Holy City, the City of God, the Celestial City, the City Foursquare, and Heavenly Jerusalem, is literally heaven on earth.  In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran.  Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Haredi Jewish and Arab communities. 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